Perry has played professionally since 1991, but the 47-year-old's only other career title came in 2015 after winning the Players Championship in Thailand.
A tense afternoon session set the pace of the match, with the pair evenly locked at 4-4 as it finished.
But as they both returned for the evening, it was Perry who raced into a 7-5 lead, doing so with a clearance of 108 and another couple of half-century breaks.
Trump looked to claw himself back into contention in the 13th frame, but an error-strewn performance helped Perry win the set 62-44 and extend his lead to 8-5.
Then just one frame away from victory, Perry showed no signs of nerves, and won the final frame after a break of 70 to lift the Ray Reardon Trophy.
Perry is now expected to rise into the world's top 25 following his title win.
After the match, Perry admitted that he thought he was in the twilight of his career heading into the tournament.
"This is the absolute highlight of my career by a country mile.
"I actually thought it was coming to an end, and now I have the best moment of my snooker career. To do it against a great champion like Judd is the icing on the cake."
Perry also paid tribute to his parents, who watched on from the crowd.
"They have supported me since I was 10 years old and if it wasn't for them I wouldn't have been a snooker player," he said.
"I have won a tournament before, but no-one was there, and I know they are proud of me, but this is amazing."
Trump also took a moment to praise his opponent, labelling him "one of the nicest guys on the tour".
He said: "It was a tough game. Joe played the better of us from start to finish, so fair play to him.
"I want to congratulate him because it is his first win in the UK and he is one of the nicest guys on the tour, so everybody is very happy for him.
"I gave it my all, but it was just not meant to be. Joe put me under pressure from the start and potted some cracking long balls, scored the heavier and was potting crucial balls at crucial times."