The 24-year-old has not played a competitive game since her first-round exit at French Open last month.
Osaka previously hinted at skipping Wimbledon due to the grand slam being stripped of ranking points over its Russian and Belarusian player ban.
The Japanese player posted a video on social media showing her undergoing rehab. She said: "My Achilles still isn't right so I'll see you next time.
"After the storm comes the calm. This is a saying that I'm actively trying to master.
"I feel like life keeps dealing cards and you're never gonna be used to them but it's how you adapt to uncomfortable situations that really says stuff about your character. I've been repeating mantras in my head a lot recently.
"I don't know if it's to subconsciously help myself through stressful times or to ease my mind into realising that everything will work out fine as long as I put the work in. Cause what more can you do?"
Osaka, who is a two-time winner at both the Australian and US Open, has never progressed past the third round at SW19.
Her last match victory at the event came all the way back in 2018 when she picked up a straight sets win over Britain's Katie Boulter.
Osaka joins a long list of female players to miss Wimbledon this year, including Eugenie Bouchard, Aryna Sabalenka, Victoria Azarenka, Venus Williams and Anastasia Pavlyuchenkova.
The men's draw is also set to miss major names, including Daniil Medvedev, Alexander Zverev, Andrey Rublev and Roger Federer.