The 28-year-old sought help from the best specialists and went through every possibility of rehab and surgery, but ultimately she was forced to call time on her career.
Robson told BBC Sport: "I had another hip surgery and probably did the best rehab block of my life - I went to all the best specialists and had some incredible people that I was working with just to get me back on court - and then the second time I hit, I just knew.
"It feels weird to say out loud, but I'm done, I'm retired. I've sort of known that for a while because of what I was told by the doctors last year, but I think it just took me so long to say it to myself, which is why it took me so long to say it officially."
Robson was thrust into the spotlight at the age of 14 as she claimed the girls' title at Wimbledon.
The player swiftly rose through senior ranks before making the fourth round of the 2012 US Open, as well as winning an Olympic silver medal in that same year. Robson teamed up with Andy Murray in the mixed doubles event, only to lose in the final against Victoria Azarenka and Max Myrni.
The Brit went on to reach the last 16 stage at Wimbledon the following season, but began to struggle with a wrist injury later that year.
After returning to action, Robson failed to recapture her best form, and in 2018 she was forced to undertake surgery following hip problems.
A brief return in 2019 was cut short by two more hip surgeries - ones which marked the end of Robson's tennis career.
She added: "I think overall I'm a much nicer person from going through all of that. If I keep looking back and thinking 'what if', then I can't move forward.
"I think I'm always going to have the feeling that I could have done more, unfortunately. I feel like if I had just had another year or two of being healthy, I don't know what I could have achieved.
"But I'm really proud of the Olympics, of playing Fed Cup - playing for your country in any way was always one of my favourite weeks of the year - and I think playing Wimbledon and the US Open the time that I did well, I will have those memories forever."