The Australian was given a warning during the third set for slamming a drink bottle to the ground in anger and then took out his frustration at the end of the five-set loss by destroying two rackets.
The offences have cost him 14,000 US dollars (approximately £12,000) to take his overall fines tally to 32,500 dollars (approximately £28,000) - by far the highest of any player.
The fine was Kyrgios' fifth separate offence of the tournament, with previous sanctions coming for spitting, swearing and smashing rackets.
The amount is still dwarfed by his prize money for the tournament across singles and doubles of 473,200 dollars (approximately £411,000).
Kyrgios made no attempt to hide his disappointment at the loss as he sought a first grand slam singles title.
He said: "I honestly feel like s**t. I feel like I've let so many people down. I feel like these four tournaments are the only ones that ever are going to matter. It's just like you've got to start it all again. I have to wait until the Australian Open.
"It's just devastating. It's heart-breaking. Not just for me, but for everyone that I know that wants me to win."
Khachanov will take on Casper Ruud in the semi-finals on Friday.