The Tottenham captain has been capped a record 145 times for the French men's side, 121 of them as skipper.
The French Football Federation confirmed the news on Monday evening, listing some of his achievements on Twitter and adding: "A Legend. Bravo and THANK YOU for everything Hugo."
It expanded in a statement on its website: "After more than 14 years spent in the jersey of the French team, Hugo Lloris has chosen to put an end to his international career.
"The goalkeeper and captain of Les Bleus formalised his decision on Monday, January 9."
Lloris made his international debut aged 21 in a 2008 friendly against Uruguay and was part of France's World Cup-winning side in 2018.
He played in a record four World Cups for France in 2010, 2014, 2018 and most recently in the 2022 World Cup in Qatar, which his side lost 4-2 to Argentina on penalties in the final.
It was in Qatar that he passed Lilian Thuram for France's all-time most caps and he also holds the record for the most World Cup matches, with 20 played for his national side.
France manager Didier Deschamps said: "Hugo has decided to retire while he is still at the top of his game. He shared his thoughts and decision with me a few days ago.
"I must, we must, respect it even if he still had his place in our team, as he demonstrated during the last World Cup, in Doha.
"A very great servant of the French team bows out and I want to salute his exceptional career.
"Beyond all the records that his talent and professionalism have allowed him to break, beyond the essential role he played in our greatest conquests, the 2018 World Cup, the 2021 Nations League, in our most beautiful journeys, the final of Euro 2016 and that of the 2022 World Cup.
"Hugo is a remarkable person on a human level. He was captain when I became coach in 2012, I kept the armband for him and I never had to regret it, quite the contrary.
"Hugo has a very high idea of the French team, he has always been oriented towards the collective, he has always put it forward, sometimes even to his detriment.
"It was a pleasure and an honour for me to be his trainer. I wish all coaches to have players like him to manage.
"Hugo has all my respect and gratitude. I wish him to be happy. A big thank you Hugo for having represented your country so well."
Lloris has made 51 saves for Tottenham so far this Premier League season and won five clean sheets in 17 appearances.
He began his career with Cedac Cimiez in his native Nice and moved to Nice - making his debut for the first team in 2005 - before playing for Lyon from 2008 to 2012.
From there he joined Spurs in 2012 and extended his contract with the Premier League club in January 2022, signing a two-and-a-half-year deal that would see him remain with them to the summer of 2024.