The Old Lady found themselves 2-0 down at the break as Antonio Candreva and Krzysztof Piatek gave the visitors a surprise lead.
The hosts fought back and pulled a goal back in 51st minute through Gleison Bremer to set up a tense finish.
Just as the visitors appeared to be heading for a historic first victory away against Juventus, Massimiliano Allegri's side were handed a late lifeline in the form of a stoppage time penalty.
Luigi Sepe sensationally saved Leonardo Bonucci's effort, but was unable to stop the rebound as Juventus levelled the match.
The hosts were quick to restart proceedings as they could sense a grand stand finish was imminent.
Second-half substitute Arek Milik appeared to have bagged the winning goal when glancing his header into the corner of the net.
The Pole, who had already received a yellow card earlier in the match, took off his shirt in celebration and was subsequently sent off.
There was more drama to come, as the winning goal was disallowed following the intervention of VAR which spotted an offside Bonucci interfering with play during the goal.
Both teams clashed on the sidelines and in the midst of the chaos, three more red cards were dished out to Juan Cuadrado, Federico Fazio and the Juve manager Allegri.
The drama eventually came to an end as Salernitana held on for the draw.