Brazil head coach Tite had a wealth of attacking options at his disposal meaning 31-year-old Firmino, who has not featured for his country since the Copa America final in July 2021, missed the cut.
Jesus' place was in question following a nine-game goalless run for Arsenal, while club colleague Martinelli has been rewarded for his fine form with the Gunners having notched five goals and two assists already this season.
Another Gunner has missed out, though, with defender Gabriel overlooked in an attacking squad named by Tite.
Manchester United's Antony and Tottenham's Richarlison are among the forwards, with Neymar, Vinicius Junior, Raphinha and Rodrygo also part of the enviable options at the head coach's disposal.
United midfielders Casemiro and Fred will be hoping to earn starting roles, with competition from Liverpool's Fabinho, Newcastle's Bruno Guimaraes and West Ham's Lucas Paqueta.
Defensively could be where Brazil's weaknesses lie, with 39-year-old former Barcelona full-back Dani Alves included alongside Chelsea's 38-year-old Thiago Silva.
Liverpool's Alisson and Manchester City's Ederson will battle it out to be number one.
Antony reacted to his inclusion on Twitter, posting a video of him celebrating with his family alongside the caption: "For you!!! Thank you, God!! Thank you everyone… friends, family, mom, dad, brothers!! Love you!!! Too much emotion!!"
Brazil World Cup squad:
Goalkeepers: Alisson - Liverpool (ENG), Ederson - Manchester City (ENG), Weverton - Palmeiras (BRA)
Defenders: Alex Sandro - Juventus (ITA), Alex Telles - Seville (ESP), Dani Alves - Pumas (MEX), Danilo - Juventus (ITA), Bremer - Juventus (ITA), Eder Militao - Real Madrid (ESP), Marquinhos - Paris Saint Germain (FRA), Thiago Silva - Chelsea (ENG)
Midfielders: Bruno Guimaraes - Newcastle (ENG), Casemiro - Manchester United (ENG), Everton Ribeiro - Flamengo (BRA), Fabinho - Liverpool (ENG), Fred - Manchester United (ENG), Lucas Paquetá - West Ham United (ENG)
Forwards: Antony - Manchester United (ENG), Gabriel Jesus - Arsenal (ENG), Gabriel Martinelli - Arsenal (ENG), Neymar Jr. - Paris Saint Germain (FRA), Pedro - Flamengo (BRA), Raphinha - Barcelona (ESP), Richarlison - Tottenham (ENG), Rodrygo - Real Madrid (ESP), Vinicius Jr. - Real Madrid (ESP)