Graeme Dott defeated Pang Junxu 6-1 and admitted 'it was fantastic' to create a bit of history along the way.
Dott - who won the World Championship in 2006 - hit his first 147 break since the 1999 British Open. If nobody can match his break, then Dott will win a £15,000 prize for the highest break alongside the £10,000 maximum bonus.
The 44-year-old is now one win away from playing at the 2022 World Championship.
Dott said: "It was fantastic - I don't really make that many. I went through a spell when I first turned professional that I was making a lot when practising, but I can't remember the last time I had one.
"It was actually nice just to get close. Even I got to one red and missed, at least I would have had a chance. When I potted the last red I was just trying not to bottle it, as everything was perfect."
Dott, who is also a two-time losing finalist, will play Jamie Clarke next as he looks to secure his return to the Crucible for the first time since 2019.
Clarke, who reached the second round two years ago, thrashed former semi-finalist Gary Wilson 6-0, while Hossein Vafaei also whitewashed Simon Lichtenberg to move one win away from becoming the first Iranian to reach the Crucible.
Former finalists Ali Carter and Matthew Stevens will clash for a place back in the main draw after they overcame Gao Yang and Sam Craigie respectively.