Yehualaw appeared to trip on a speed bump with six miles remaining but recovered to rejoin the leading pack.
The 23-year-old came home in 2 hours 17 minutes and 25 seconds - the third fastest time at the event - as defending champion Joyciline Jepkosgei, of Kenya, had to settle for second.
London debutant Amos Kipruto, a world bronze medallist in Doha in 2019, won the men's race.
The 30-year-old Kenyan clocked 2:04.39 ahead of Ethiopia's Leul Gebresilase with Bashir Abdi of Belgium in third.
The first Briton home was 28-year-old Weynay Ghebresilasie, who was born in Eritrea but qualified to represent Great Britain last year.
Ghebresilasie finished ninth in a new personal best time of 2:11:57, followed closely by compatriot Philip Sesemann.
Marcel Hug and Catherine Debrunner clinched a wheelchair race double for Switzerland, with British pair David Weir and Eden Rainbow-Cooper winning bronze for Great Britain in their respective men's and women's events.