Scheffler won four times in 2022, including his first major title in the Masters, and topped the poll ahead of FedEx Cup winner Rory McIlroy and Open champion Cameron Smith, who also won the Players Championship.
Scheffler is the first player to be named player of the year on the developmental Korn Ferry Tour (2019), rookie of the year on the PGA Tour (2020) and player of the year on the PGA Tour.
PGA Tour commissioner Jay Monahan said: "On behalf of the PGA Tour, congratulations to Scottie on his remarkable season and his unprecedented achievements.
"Undoubtedly, one of the highest compliments a player can receive is the endorsement from his peers, and the fact that Scottie's season was both dominant and consistent spoke volumes to the membership.
"With young stars like Scottie leading the way, the PGA Tour is in great hands for many years to come."