The two-time Premier League champion felt unwell earlier in the week and subsequently tested positive for Covid-19.
Anderson was scheduled to take on Dutchman Michael van Gerwen in the quarter-final at the First Direct Arena.
Instead, the world number three will be handed an automatic 6-0 win and will progress straight into the semi-final. Van Gerwen will take on either Michael Smith of Peter Wright.
Anderson out of luck and form in recent weeks
Since losing out to Damon Heta in the final of the fifth Players Championship event, Anderson has been struggling for form.
The Flying Scotsman was knocked out in the first round of the following Players Championship event against Darius Labanauskas, before losing back-to-back Premier League quarter-finals against Joe Cullen and Peter Wright.
Anderson then made it to the Last 16 stage of Players Championship Nine, but backed that up with another first round exit against Labanauskas a day later.
The 51-year-old now becomes the second player to withdraw from a night of Premier League action.
Gerwyn Price suffered similar fate on night five as he was ruled out due to a hand injury. Joe Cullen subsequently progressed to the semi-finals but, faced a 6-1 loss at the hands of Van Gerwen.