The Dutchman raced to victory in just over 33 minutes of play, averaging 102, landing five 180s and relinquishing just three legs en route to a crushing 5-0 win.
"I feel good. Chris didn't play his game but I put him under pressure from the beginning," said Van Gerwen, who posted his fourth consecutive ton-plus average at this year's World Championship.
"If Michael van Gerwen turns up, he is going to win the game, but you need to make sure your preparation is right, your focus is good.
"You need to believe in your own opportunities and your own ability, and that's what I do.
"I have learnt from my defeats in the last few years and I've come back stronger. I feel comfortable, my belief is back and I'm looking forward to the semi-finals."
Meanwhile, Gabriel Clemens continued his history-making run at the World Darts Championship with a sensational 5-1 demolition of world number one Gerwyn Price.
Two-time runner-up Michael Smith will face Clemens in Monday's semi-finals after seeing off Stephen Bunting, while Gerwen will take on Dimitri Van den Bergh after their wins over Dobey and Jonny Clayton respectively.
2022/23 World Championships results and schedule
Sunday January 1 - Quarter-Finals
Dimitri Van den Bergh 5-3 Jonny Clayton (0-3, 3-0, 1-3, 3-0, 2-3, 3-2, 3-1, 3-2)
Michael Smith 5-3 Stephen Bunting (3-2, 0-3, 3-1, 3-1, 3-0, 0-3, 1-3, 3-1)
Gabriel Clemens 5-1 Gerwyn Price (0-3, 3-1, 3-1, 3-1, 3-1, 3-0)
Michael van Gerwen 5-0 Chris Dobey (3-1, 3-1, 3-0, 3-0, 3-1)
Monday January 2 - Semi-finals (1930 GMT)
Gabriel Clemens v Michael Smith
Dimitri Van den Bergh v Michael van Gerwen
Best of 11 sets
Tuesday January 3 - Final (2000 GMT)
Clemens/Smith v Van den Bergh/Van Gerwen
Best of 13 sets