'Mighty Mike' produced a stunning 113.79 average - and missed double 12 for a nine-dart finish - when sealing a 6-3 win.
Van Gerwen's most recent success in Leverkusen came in 2019 and he was pushed early by Gurney, who had a chance to win the seventh leg.
His hopes were short-lived as van Gerwen hit a 10-darter before closing out the next two legs.
"Daryl pushed me in the beginning of the game," the Dutchman told reporters.
"I missed a few darts here and there and that puts you under pressure. I still had a couple of really good legs.
"To be playing back here in Leverkusen is always good. I also want to do well because I think the crowd here deserve it and I need to make sure I keep my focus going. I feel good but tomorrow is another day."
Van Gerwen will now take on Cazoo Premier League table-topper Jonny Clayton when Sunday's third-round ties get underway.
Scott Williams claimed the biggest scalp of his career when inflicting a 6-4 defeat on world champion Wright.
'Snakebite' missed an astonishing 15 doubles on a day to forget as Williams claimed a memorable win to set up a third-round clash with fellow emerging star, Josh Rock.
"That wasn't the Peter we all know, he missed too many darts at doubles, he didn't score like he could but I won," said Williams.
Sunday 8 May, 2022
Afternoon Session (13:00 local time, 12:00 BST):
Gerwyn Price v Nathan Aspinall
Luke Humphries v Brendan Dolan
Joe Cullen v Dirk van Duijvenbode
Michael van Gerwen v Jonny Clayton
Scott Williams v Josh Rock
Dimitri Van den Bergh v Martin Schindler
Jose De Sousa v James Wade
Ryan Searle v Dave Chisnall
Evening Session (19:00 local time, 18:00 BST):