Roach took 25 wickets in seven outings for the Brown Caps in 2022 and has signed up for the first six games of their defence.
He said: "I really enjoy playing for Surrey and winning the title last year was incredible to be a part of.
"It's such a talented and exciting group of players and I can't wait to get back out on the pitch representing the club."
Head coach Gareth Batty added: "We're looking forward to welcoming Kemar back to Surrey. He brings great ability and work ethic, and his experience plays an important role in the dressing room.
"Kemar has already shown what he can do in his time at the club so far and we're excited to have him joining us again this year."