The tourists resumed day four on 103 for eight, and were only able to set West Indies a target of 28 in Grenada.
Chris Woakes and Jack Leach were able to put on a stubborn showing for 40 minutes, but the pair only managed to add a measly 13 runs to England's total.
When the ball was handed to Kemar Roach, the 33-year-old only required one delivery to dismiss Woakes, who left the field after his firm flick flew rapidly to Jason Holder's right at leg gully, where a superb one-handed catch broke the deadlock.
After a superb display in the first innings, Saqib Mahmood then reunited with Jack Leach at 116 for nine, but the duo weren't able to replicate the heroics this time around.
Mahmood managed three from six, but Leach was eventually dismissed by Roach having scored just four from 55 deliveries to seal an inevitable defeat.
The loss marked the fourth successive failed series for this England side, who have won just one Test victory in their last 17 attempts.
Pressure will pile on Joe Root's role as captaincy following the defeat, while England's top order again leave with their heads buried.
It leaves much work to be done by Paul Collingwood ahead of the Test against New Zealand, with the opener scheduled at Lord's in June.
Following the match, Root defended his position as captain, and insisted he is doing all he can to "take this team forward".
"I think I made it quite clear at the start of this game and throughout this tour I'm very passionate about trying to take this team forward. I will control what I can.
"I don't think it's ever in your hands. I feel like the group are very much behind me, we're doing a lot of really good things and we just need to turn that into results now."
Root also emphasised his disappointment at England's batting across the third Test, but remains positive about the glimpses of "brilliant cricket" on display from his side.
"There's frustration at how it's finished. Throughout this series we've played some really good cricket. We've shown what we're capable of as a group.
"I think we grew over the first two games as a batting group, we've taken big strides in that department and shown what we're capable of.
"Yesterday really let us down and hurt us, it was an important day within the series and we just didn't stand up to it well enough.
"And unfortunately we find ourselves in a position where we've ended up losing a series where we played so much brilliant cricket."