The 28-year-old won an international recall for England's T20 and Test tours of Pakistan this winter after a season in which he struck 1,408 runs across all competitions for his county.
Duckett made some impressive contributions in the 4-3 series win over Pakistan in the sprint format and has taken that into the Tests, returning to the top of the order to hit scores of 107, 63 and 79.
Duckett said: "The last two years have been very encouraging for us as a red-ball side, and to be part of that progression is really pleasing.
"I feel like my game is in a good place, which I suppose is largely the result of so much hard work over the last three or four years working on my technique, and leaning on the support of coaches at Notts."
Nottinghamshire head coach Peter Moores added: "Ben has improved every year since joining us and he is now getting the rewards for all the hard work he has put in over that time."