Stand-in skipper Buttler ensured there was to be no hangover from a groin injury sustained by captain Eoin Morgan as his 86 off 64 balls, coupled with Jason Roy's emphatic 101 off 86, led England to an eight-wicket third ODI success over the Dutch in Amstelveen.
The pair's heroics came after Netherlands were dismissed for 244, with Scott Edwards (64) top scoring.
David Willey was the pick of the England attack as he claimed 4-36.
Player of the series Buttler, who has now skippered England to six ODI victories, told reporters: "Another great victory. I thought we played really well with the ball to restrict them, picked up wickets at crucial times and it was a brilliant batting display again."
Buttler picked out Phil Salt for praise as his 49 in a stand of 85 with Roy for the first wicket set the tone for the England chase.
There was a hint of a wobble when two balls later Dawid Malan went for nought from a Paul van Meekeren delivery.
Buttler came in to calm any nerves and brought up his half-century off 44 balls before closing out the win on 248-2 with 19.5 overs to spare in an eye-catching partnership with Roy.
The win helped England leapfrog Bangladesh into top spot on 10 points in the ICC Men's Cricket World Cup Super League standings.
England host India in a three-natch one-day international series, starting on Tuesday 12 July at the Kia Oval, and Buttler said a number of players had put themselves in contention for selection.
He said: "There's a lot of cricket coming up in a short space of time which is very exciting. We've got great depth in the squad with more guys standing up on this trip and pushing up the competition in the squad which is just what we want to see.
"I thought David Payne bowled brilliantly on debut, Brydon Carse looks exciting, I was impressed with Phil Salt. There is this deep pool of players that are pushing the game forward for us in English cricket."