Singh will be available for fixtures against Surrey, Warwickshire, Northamptonshire, Essex and Nottinghamshire in June and July.
"I am excited to play red-ball cricket in England and continue to improve my skills in the first-class game," said Singh.
"Indian head coach Rahul Dravid has already told me it is a club with a great history."
Singh debuted in international cricket in 2022 and has since played three ODIs and 26 T20Is.
"We're delighted to have a player of Arshdeep's potential join us for five matches this summer," added Kent director of cricket Paul Downton.
"He has demonstrated that he has world-class skills with the white ball, and I am very confident he will be able to put those skills to good use with the red ball in the County Championship."