The 31-year-old pulled up whilst chasing a ball to the boundary against the Southern Brave, but continued to field for the rest of the match and told Sky Sports: "I'm just getting a bit older."
Buttler has scored 203 runs in his five innings this season's competition and the Originals captaincy will now be passed to Laurie Evans.
Originals' head coach, Simon Katich said: "Obviously [we are] disappointed to lose Jos, not just for his batting but also his leadership."
He now faces a battle to be fit for England's white-ball tour of Pakistan, which begins next month.
England are scheduled to play a seven-match T20 series across September and October, with the first match taking place in Karachi on September 20.
Buttler joins a groaning England treatment table with Chris Jordan, Jofra Archer, Tymal Mills, Mark Wood, Chris Woakes and Richard Gleeson all currently out of action.