Gould will leave his current post as Bristol City CEO in late January and has previous cricket experience after performing the same role at Somerset and Surrey.
The 52-year-old was the unanimous recommendation to the ECB board and will take over from Clare Connor, who has been working as interim chief executive.
"Cricket is a national asset that can be played by all and helps strengthen and enhance communities across the nation," Gould said.
"It can inspire the country and provides opportunities for all, but we have also seen the pain suffered by those who have experienced discrimination.
"We are determined to repair this damage and show that cricket can become the most inclusive and welcoming sport of all."