Thorpe replaces former South African batter Lance Klusener as Afghanistan head coach, after the 50-year-old parted ways with the side at the end of 2021.
In his two-year spell in charge, Klusener oversaw one Test win across three matches, as well as three ODI wins in six games.
Stuart Law took interim charge of the side, who will now prepare under Thorpe for a series of T20 matches against Ireland, scheduled to take place in August.
Thorpe brings plenty of experience to the side, having played 100 Tests and 82 one-day internationals throughout his career as a middle-order batter.
He had been part of the England coaching team for over 10 years, first joining as a batting coach in 2010.
The Afghanistan Cricket Board announced the latest chapter of Thorpe's career on Tuesday afternoon.
The statement read: "Former English middle-order batter Graham Thorpe has been named as the new head coach of our national men's cricket team.
"He will step up into the role of head coach ahead of the upcoming international events of Afghanistan.
"It's to mention that the ACB had launched the recruitment process for hiring a new head coach, through which Graham Thorpe was selected as the best available nominee for the position."
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